Guest-editor: Shehla Rashid

Bookmarks & Reviews

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Who’s Driving Innovation?: New Technologies and the Collaborative State

Jack Stilgoe | Palgrave Macmillan

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Should AI Companies Work With Government?

Jack Clark, Richard Danzig, Melissa Flagg, Raj Shah | Georgetown University Center for Security Studies

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“Techno-Market Fix”? Decoding Wealth Through Mobile Money in the Global South

Emmanuel Frimpong Boamah, Nadine S. Murshid | Geoforum

The use of mobile phones for financial services in the global South has gained prominence in the last decade. These financial technology (FinTech) services, popularly known as mobile money (MM), offer an avenue for financial inclusivity, a recurring theme in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. This paper, largely conceptual but interlaced with empirical examples from Ghana and Bangladesh, critically examines the rise of mobile money in the global South. Specifically, it employs David Harvey’s adaptation and redeployment of the laws of accumulation to relate the economic phenomenon of MM to the capitalistic relationship between capital and labor. We argue, among other points, that MM emerges as a techno-market fix to make visible, bankable, and taxable the hitherto invisible, unbanked, and untaxed urban sub-proletariat who are mostly engaged in the informal sector. Thus, whether in sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia, the underlying laws of accumulation through MM are the same: make informality visible in order to decode wealth, and accumulate for the sake of accumulation. We conclude by briefly reflecting on how our arguments contribute to the literature on economic, digital, and development geographies of postcolonial economies in the global South.

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articletech-state-citizens

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Data Analytics and Algorithmic Bias in Policing

Alexander Babuta, Marion Oswald | Royal United Services Institute

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documenttech-state-citizens
Screenshot of ftalphaville.ft.com
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Libra Is Imperialism By Stealth

Claire Jones, Izabella Kaminska | Financial Times

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AI Talent Policy

Remco Zwetsloot | ChinAI Pod

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Reining in Big Tech

Chris Hughes, Abbott Lipsky Jr., Florencia Marotta | NYU School of Law

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No Rage Against the Machines: Threat of Automation Does Not Change Policy Preferences

Baobao Zhang | MIT

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documenttech-state-citizens
Screenshot of www.dailysabah.com
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Gov’t Eyeing Tech Independence in Rail Industry With New Institute in Gebze

Daily Sabah

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journalismtech-state-citizens
Screenshot of uk.reuters.com
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China’s Fintech Stocks Buoyed By Beijing’s Digital Currency Push

Luoyan Liu | Reuters

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Computational Power: Automated Use of Whatsapp in Brazilian Elections

Marco Konopacki | Maxwell School of Syracuse University

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Can You Engage in Political Activity Without Internet Access? The Social Effects of Internet Deprivation

Ryan Shandler, Michael L Gross, Daphna Canetti | Political Studies Review

To what extent can you engage in political activity in the modern age without Internet access? The growing dependence on Internet access to fulfill basic civil functions is threatened by increasing personal and societal cyber vulnerability. In this article, we explore the extent to which citizens are able, or unable, to engage in specific political activities in the absence of Internet connectivity. To concretize the subject, we test how Internet deprivation affects the ability to realize three basic elements of political participation: political expression, civic association, and access to information. To measure this, we develop a new experimental methodology that tests people’s ability to complete tasks related to each function under simulated treatments of Internet access or deprivation. This empirical methodology offers a new framework through which to quantify the realization of social tasks under experimental conditions. Early results suggest that the absence of Internet access significantly reduces task completion for activities related to political expression and political association and conditionally reduces task completion for practices associated with freedom of information. Having substantiated this empirical framework, we encourage its application to additional forms of political activity.

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Digital Hermeneutics: Philosophical Investigations in New Media and Technologies

Alberto Romele | Routledge

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Big Data: Ethics and Law

Rainer Lenz | University of Bielefeld

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How Neoliberal Policy Shaped the Internet—And What To Do About It

Paul Starr | Prospect Magazine

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Screenshot of www.lawfareblog.com
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A Federal Backstop for Insuring Against Cyberattacks?

Scott R. Anderson, Aaron Klein | Lawfare

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Digital Diplomacy. Technology Governance for Developing Countries

Pathways for Prosperity Commission

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Lessons From Xinjiang: The Dangers of U.S. Investment in Chinese Surveillance Technology

Kayden McKenzie | Center for Strategic International Studies

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What’s At Stake in Trump’s War on Huawei: Control of the Global Computer-Chip Industry

Clinton Fernandes | The Conversation

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Screenshot of urbanomnibus.net
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Building the People’s Internet

Greta Byrum | Urban Omnibus

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Screenshot of lithub.com
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Can Fiction Introduce Empathy Into AI? Do We Want It To?

Flynn Coleman | Literary Hub

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The Surveillance State in Australia

Moira Paterson | Australian Fabians

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An Acid Test for Europeanization: Public Cyber Security Procurement in the European Union

Jukka Ruohonen | European Journal for Security Research

Public procurement refers to processes through which national, regional, and local public authorities, state-owned enterprises, or other related bodies governed by public law, purchase products, services, and public work. Such purchases have been a particularly important element in developing the Internal Market of the European Union (EU). Given recent procurement reforms in the EU, including the 2009 reform on defense procurement, this paper examines public cyber security procurement in Europe. Two questions are examined: (1) whether cyber security procurement differs from public procurement in general, and (2) whether there are any noteworthy signs of Europeanization in terms of cyber security procurement. According to the empirical results, cyber security procurement tends to differ from general public procurement. In particular, competition obstacles are visible in terms of bids for cyber security procurement tenders. This result is accompanied with a visible lack of Europeanization, although the same observation generalizes to public procurement in the EU generally. With these results and the accompanying discussion, the paper contributes to the recent lively discussion about European security and its relation to marketization.

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Making Surveillance States: Transnational Histories

Robert Heynen, Emily van Der Meulen | University of Toronto Press

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Artificial Intelligence: the Right To Protection From Discrimination Caused By Algorithms, Machine Learning and Automated Decision-Making

Robin Allen, Dee Masters | ERA Forum

An analysis of how Artificial Intelligence, ML algorithms and automated decision-making can give rise to discrimination and the ways in which Europe’s existing equality framework can regulate any inequality whilst also identifying how it must change to meet the challenges ahead. The authors also examine some of the ways in which the GDPR impacts on Artificial Intelligence, ML algorithms and automated decision making.

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Fighting Industrial and Economic Espionage Through Criminal Law: Lessons To Be Learned From Austria and Switzerland

Cathrine Konopatsch | Security Journal

Empirical figures show that, especially in recent years, the frequency of industrial and economic espionage, and consequently its dangers and negative impact, has increased greatly worldwide. This has impacted not only the individual victims of the infringement of trade secrets, but also the national and global economies at large. This espionage cannot be tackled effectively through uncoordinated, stand-alone-actions of individual countries anymore. Instead, the global community must take a more holistic view and find universally acceptable strategies and standards, looking for best practices through the lens of comparative law. The paper compares and contrasts the legal approaches to the criminalisation of economic and industrial espionage in Switzerland and Austria. It aims to show the similarities and differences and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each jurisdiction. The results are meant to enrich and to contribute to the discussions regarding efficient and commonly acceptable solutions to fighting economic and industrial espionage.

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California Takes the Lead on Data Privacy Law

Mark A. Rothstein, Stacey A. Tovino | Hastings Center Report

In the early 1970s, Congress considered enacting comprehensive privacy legislation, but it was unable to do so. In 1974, it passed the Privacy Act, applicable only to information in the possession of the federal government. In the intervening years, other information privacy laws enacted by Congress, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, have been weak and sector specific. With the explosion of information technology and the growing concerns about an absence of effective federal privacy laws, the legal focus has shifted to the states. Signaling a new direction in state data privacy and consumer protection law, the California Consumer Privacy Act establishes important rights and protections for California residents with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, and sale of their personal information. The CCPA is certain to spur similar legislation and to affect national and international businesses that collect data from California’s residents. Understanding the new law is important for all data‐driven industries, including health care.

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Excavating AI. The Politics of Images in Machine Learning Training Sets

Kate Crawford, Trevor Paglen | Excavating AI

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Library Values and Privacy in the Contemporary Collection

Lindsay Levinsohn | The Authority File

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Merging Humanity and Technology

Kate O’ Neill | Creative Warriors

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Software Rights: How Patent Law Transformed Software Development in America

Gerardo Con Díaz | Yale University Press

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Digital Identities: a Political Settlements Analysis of Asymmetric Power and Information

Mushtaq Khan, Pallavi Roy | SOAS University of London

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Future-Proofing Legislation for the Digital Age

Sofia Ranchordas, Mattis van’t Schip | University of Groningen Faculty of Law

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Analyzing Citizen Participation and Engagement in European Smart Cities

María E. Cortés-Cediel, Iván Cantador, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar | Social Science Computer Review

With the advent of smart cities (SCs), governance has been placed at the core of the debate on how to create public value and achieve a high quality of life in urban environments. In particular, given that public value is rooted in democratic theory and new technologies that promote networking spaces have emerged, citizen participation represents one of the principal instruments to make government open and close to the citizenry needs. Participation in urban governance has undergone a great development: from the first postmodernist ideals of countering expert dominance to today’s focus on learning and social innovation, where citizen participation is conceptualized as co-creation and co-production. Despite this development, there is a lack of research to know how this new governance context is taking place in the SC arena. Addressing this situation, in this article, we present an exhaustive survey of the research literature and a deep study of the experience in participative initiatives followed by SCs in Europe. Through an analysis of 149 SC initiatives from 76 European cities, we provide interesting insights about how participatory models have been introduced in the different areas and dimensions of the cities, how citizen engagement is promoted in SC initiatives, and whether the so-called creative SCs are those with a higher number of projects governed in a participatory way.

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On Civil Society | When Algorithms Disrupt Social Justice

Norma Möllers | Toronto Public Library

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Survival By Technopreneurialism: Innovation, Imaginaries and the New Narrative of Nationhood in Singapore

Chua Hui Ching Emily | Science, Technology and Society

Through a consideration of the Singapore government’s moves to encourage citizens to create innovative, high-technology enterprises—or to become ‘technopreneurs’—this essay looks at how government efforts to promote innovation, can articulate with prevailing national and social imaginaries, in ways that reshape notions of citizenship and nationhood and that have potential ramifications for the kinds of risks and burdens that citizens can be asked to bear. I show, specifically, how the new value of innovation is being incorporated into Singapore’s older narrative of national survival in a way that changes this narrative’s mode of emplotment from one of comedy to one of satire. Through this shift, promises of collective prosperity and progress, which are integral to the nation’s founding era of industrial manufacturing-based development, are withdrawn, while new notions of individual and financial risk and reward are introduced. I argue that attending to modes of emplotment may be a useful way to identify the broader entailments of different governments’ innovation policies and programmes.

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How To Survive a Robot Invasion: Rights, Responsibility, and AI

David J Gunkel | Routledge

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bookphilosophy-of-technology

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The New York Inclusive Value Ledger: A Peer-To-Peer Savings & Payments Platform for an All-Embracing and Dynamic State Economy

Robert C. Hockett | SSRN

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documenttech-state-citizens

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Political Campaigning: the Gap, the Law and the Way Forward

Ravi Naik | Oxford Technology and Election Comission

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documenttech-state-citizens
Screenshot of theconversation.com
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AI Could Be a Force for Good – But We’re Currently Heading for a Darker Future

Stefanie Ullmann | The Conversation

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AI and the Police State

Andrea Nill Sánchez | AI Now Institute

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EU Internet Law in the Digital Era: Regulation and Enforcement

Tatiani-Eleni Synodinou | Springer

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Post-Truth and the Mediation of Reality

Rosemary Overell | Palgrave

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bookphilosophy-of-technology
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Smartphones Are Helping the U.S. Air Force Push Its Limits

Charlie Gao | National Interest

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Laws of Form Engendered By a Cybernetic Process

Vanilla Beer | West Den Haag

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How To Think About Cyber Sovereignty: The Case of China

Yu Hong | Chinese Journal of Communication

The cybersphere constitutes a global disagreement space. There, the contested, ongoing ties that link states and the internet come into being. A critique of sovereignty and political economy is offered to evaluate contemporary controversies concerning authority, independence, regulation, and access to communications as matters of relationality, materiality, and disagreement.We review China’s promotion of cyber sovereignty as a complicating episode that expresses development stresses of the sphere. China wishes to establish guardrails for the practices of multipolar global digital capitalism; yet, it has ushered in an Internet keyed variety of global issues–security, privacy, material well-being, developmental justice, and planetary futures.These complex aims invite and expand the dialectical spaces animating the cybersphere.

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Machines Who Imagine: Past, Present, and Future of Artificial Intelligence From 1950 To 2050

Sridhar Mahadevan | U.S. Naval Institute

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videophilosophy-of-technology

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Strategies for Preserving Memes As Artefacts of Digital Culture

Fátima García López, Sara Martínez Cardama | Journal of Librarianship and Information Science

The Internet archives kept by heritage libraries are analysed, focusing specifically on that new type of expression characteristic of web culture and digital folklore, the meme. Five paradigmatic examples of heritage institutions engaging in web archive initiatives are explored: the Library of Congress, British Library, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Biblioteca Nacional de España and National Library of Australia. Specific assessment categories are defined for the study. The findings reveal a lack of collection policies for such representative objects of today’s mass culture and identify the challenges both for the custodial institutions and for research in the future.

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Beyond Techno-Utopia and Its Discontents: on the Role of Utopianism and Speculative Fiction in Shaping Alternatives To the Smart City Imaginary

Olivia Bina, Andy Inch, Lavínia Pereira | Futures

In recent years, the ‘smart city’ has become established in policy and planning discourse, embedding visions of an urban future where ubiquitous technology offers efficient solutions to the pathologies of the contemporary city. In response, a rapidly growing social-scientific literature is critically exploring how the smart city imaginary (SCI) promotes ‘techno-utopian’ fantasies, ignoring the risks of a technologically determined future. In this paper we begin by considering SCI as emblematic of the colonization of contemporary (urban) futures by vested interests, arguing for the need for diverse and plural imaginaries and thus for a re-engagement of the social sciences. We explore how critical social scientific contributions to shaping futures might be deepened through further engagement with utopian theory and speculative fiction, two traditions of future-orientated thinking that seek to combine critique with constructive thinking about alternatives. We therefore contribute to ‘50 + 50 Theme 2: Framing Futures in 2068-the limits of and opportunities for futures research’ by 1) extending critique of contemporary claims about (smart urban) futures, and; 2) exploring how utopianism and fiction can expand ways of thinking, imagining and knowing futures.

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articlephilosophy-of-technology

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Copyright Law and Artificial Intelligence

Gerald Spindler | IIC – International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become one of the hottest topics in more or less all legal areas, be it liability, criminal law, legal tech, or even agricultural law. Hence, it is no surprise that AI also raises issues in copyright law, mainly concerning two different questions. The first refers to the creation of works with the help of AI, the second deals with copyright protection of AI itself.

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Capitalism With a Transhuman Face: The Afterlife of Fascism and the Digital Frontier

Ana Teixeira Pinto | Third Text

The most salient feature of the far-right movement, which became known as the alt-right, is its relation with IT rather than with the diminished expectations of the post-industrial working class. The ethos of the tech industry transmogrified in recent years, shifting from the market-besotted optimism championed by Bill Gates to the digital feudalism represented by Bay Area neoreactionaries and cybermonarchists. The article argues that this points to a new configuration of fascist ideology taking shape under the aegis of, and working in tandem with, neoliberal governance. If every rise of fascism bears witness to a failed revolution (a thought attributed to Walter Benjamin but as an elision of his arguments), the rise of cryptofascist tendencies within the tech industry bears witness to the failures of the ‘digital revolution’ whose promises of a post-scarcity economy and socialised capital never came to pass. From this perspective, it is proposed, the online cultural wars are a proxy for a greater battle around de-Westernisation, imperialism and white hegemony.

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Citizen Science and the Neoliberal Transformation of Science – an Ambivalent Relationship

Katrin Vohland, Maike Weißpflug, Lisa Pettibone | Citizen Science: Theory and Practice

The neoliberal turn in science has led to the economisation of knowledge, economic criteria for evaluating research, and a retreat of the state from governance of the scientific system. These steps have important ramifications for citizen science. On one hand, citizen science may add to the neoliberalization of science by filling gaps in “traditional science,” such as providing free environmental data or delivering public goods such as education or environmental knowledge. On the other hand, citizen science may provide a way to buck the trend of neoliberalization, by promoting new forms of societal cooperation and mutual learning that may lead to more social cohesion and sustainability, as well as safeguard a non-economized sphere. In this way, citizen science is ambivalent: It can either strengthen or challenge neoliberalization of science. This article describes this idea in more detail and presents practical suggestions for how to manage them, ranging from openly curated data over different types of feedback systems to the development of mutual learning spaces.

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Like, Post, and Distrust? How Social Media Use Affects Trust in Government

Elad Klein, Joshua Robison | Political Communication

There is much discussion about the potential negative effects of social media use on people’s political attitudes. But, does social media use shape trust in government? We use evidence from the 2012 and 2016 ANES as well as the 2018 American Institutional Confidence Poll to test competing expectations regarding this question: that social media polarizes versus de-polarizes trust judgments across partisan lines. Our analyses provide greater support for the expectation of polarization. We then unpack the potential mechanisms behind these findings. We use the number of “stealth” issue campaigns targeted to the respondent’s state in 2016 as a proxy for the amount of political conflict the respondent was likely to have experienced when using social media during the 2016 Presidential election. Notably, we find that polarization is substantially impacted by the nature of the voter’s broader political environment. These findings are consequential for our understanding of how social media influences public opinion and draws attention to the role of the broader political context for this relationship.

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Covering Protests on Twitter: The Influences on Journalists’ Social Media Portrayals of Left-and Right-Leaning Demonstrations in Brazil

RR Mourão, W Chen | The International Journal of Press/Politics

This study uses a media sociology approach to untangle how multiple influences shape the way journalists cover left- and right-leaning protests on social media. Several studies have investigated how reporters portray social movements, finding that news ma

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The Kremlin’s Global Outreach: From Cyber To Russians Abroad

Andrei Soldatov, Irina Borogan | MIT Center for International Studies

With speakers Andrei Soldatov and Irina Borogan

A session of the Focus on Russia Lecture Series co-chaired by Carol Saivetz and Elizabeth Wood

Andrei Soldatov is a Russian investigative journalist and Russian security services expert
Irina Borogan is a R

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AI Ethics, Policy, and Governance

Joy Buolamwini, Ken Denman | Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence

Join the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI) via livestream on Oct. 28-29 for our 2019 fall conference on AI Ethics, Policy, and Governance. With experts from academia, industry, civil society, and government, we’ll explore

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Does Rural Broadband Tech Made in China Pose a National Security Threat?

Christopher Mitchell | Marketplace Tech

Fact-Checkers assemble! Sean Lavery, Director of Research for newyorker.com joins Longreads Head of Fact-Checking, Matt Giles, and Longreads Fact-Checker Samantha Schuyler to talk about the pressures of publishing online and how The New Yorker runs its fact-checking operation. This episode is a production of Longreads and Charts & Leisure. Produced by Jason Oberholtzer and Mike Rugnetta. Mixed by Michael Simonelli. Recorded at Fortunate Horse studio in Brooklyn NY. Longreads’ theme music was written and performed by Brian Donohoe.

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The Need for Control and Belonging: The Zeitgeist of Social Media

Darren Stehle | Living OUT Podcast

“In this episode, Daphne Keller, Director of Intermediary Liability at the Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School and former Associate General Counsel for Google, discusses her essay “”Who Do You Sue?: State and Platform Hybrid Power Over Online Speech,”” which is published by the Hoover Institution. Keller begins by explaining how the First Amendment does – or doesn’t – affect the ability of internet platforms to regulate online speech. She describes various arguments about why internet platforms should or shouldn’t regulate speech, proposals to implement those arguments, and why those proposals are likely to fail. And she reflects on how internet platforms can and should regulate online speech. Keller is on Twitter at @daphnehk.This episode was hosted by Brian L. Frye, Spears-Gilbert Associate Professor of Law at the University of Kentucky College of Law. Frye is on Twitter at @brianlfrye.”

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Technological Change and Countries’ Tax Policy Design

Alissa Bruehne | Otto Beisheim School of Management

In contrast to popular dystopian speculation about the societal impacts of widespread AI deployment, we consider AI’s potential to drive a social transformation toward greater human liberty, agency, and equality. The impact of AI, like all technology, will depend on both properties of the technology and the economic, social, and political conditions of its deployment and use. We identify conditions of each type – technical characteristics and socio-political context – likely to be conducive to such large-scale beneficial impacts. Promising technical characteristics include decision-making structures that are tentative and pluralistic, rather than optimizing a single-valued objective function under a single characterization of world conditions; and configuring the decision-making of AI-enabled products and services exclusively to advance the interests of their users, subject to relevant social values, not those of their developers or vendors. We explore various strategies and business models for developing and deploying AI-enabled products that incorporate these characteristics, including philanthropic seed capital, crowd-sourcing, open-source development, and sketch various possible ways to scale deployment thereafter.

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Governing By Models: Exploring the Technopolitics of the (In)Visilibities of Land

Allison Loconto, Raoni Rajão | Land Use Policy

Due to the rapid exchange of information and large user base of social networking sites, these are focused for gathering the latest information or news from people over the world. Anyone having an internet connected device can share thoughts or update on real-time events. Social media helps reporters as well as common men in sharing useful information, but at the same time, it also leads to deliberate or accidental spread of rumors, i.e. pieces of information having uncertain truth at the time of posting. During social crisis, people access these platforms to get relevant information. In the rush of being early responders to a critical event users post the information even without checking its veracity and that further used by other users to fill-in their informational gap. So flagging out the unverified information can be useful in maintaining a distance from spreading the information that may end up being false. The openness of online social networking platforms (i.e. Twitter or Facebook), presence of machine learning and NLP (Natural Language Processing) based techniques give us a chance to inspect the conduct of people in posting rumorous information. In this work, we summarize and present the efforts and achievements so far to combat the spread of rumorous information. These efforts composed of analyzing the content of rumors, properties of users who share rumors and network structure that favor the spread of such information.

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If Facebook and Google Are State Actors, What’s Next for Content Moderation?

Jed Rubenfeld | Lawfare

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Untangling myself from the file’: human-centred record-keeping

Elizabeth Shepherd, Victoria Hoyle | UCL

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Digital Human Rights Reporting and The Politics of Intelligence

Ella McPherson | CRASSH Cambridge

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On algorithms and politics

João Magalhães | Aufhebunga Bunga

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Ethics and Algorithms

Brent Mittlestadt, Andre Loesekrug-Pietri | The Sound of Economics

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Screenshot of cosmosmagazine.com
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Where AI and ethics meet

Stephen Fleischresser | Cosmos

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Screenshot of news.harvard.edu
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Cryptocurrency and national insecurity

Clea Simon | The Harvard Gazette

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Screenshot of www.tabletmag.com
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Can the U.S. Flip Iran’s Internet Back On?

David Auerbach | Tablet Magazine

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Are Neural Networks About to Reinvent Physics?

Gary Marcus, Ernie Davis | Nautilus

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Information, Technology, and Digitalization in China’s Environmental Governance

Genia Kostka | Journal of Environmental Planning and Management

Research on the relationship between information, technology, and environmental governance in the current Information Age has gained momentum in recent years. Nevertheless, much theoretical, empirical, and normative issues remain seriously under-explored.

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Our digital future (on life after giant monopolies)

Carlota Perez | SogetiLabs

Carlota Perez, Professor of Economics, London School of Economics, Tallinn University of Technology, calls digital future – A new Golden Age of Opportunity in her presentation at the Sogeti’Utopia for Beginners’ Summit Paris 2019

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The Ethics of Technology

Virginia Eubanks | Washington and Lee University

“Virginia Eubanks, Associate Professor of Women’s Studies at the University of Albany will give a lecture for the Mudd Center’s series, “”The Ethics of Technology.”” Prof. Eubanks joined the Department of Womens, Gender, and Sexuality Studies in 2004 after co”

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Hackers are now targeting councils and governments, threatening to leak citizen data

Roberto Musotto | The Conversation

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Governing AI

Scott Shackelford | Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly pervasive and essential to everyday life, enabling apps and various smart devices to autonomous vehicles and medical devices. Yet along with the promise of an increasingly interconnected and responsive Internet of Everything, AI is ushering in a host of legal, social, economic, and cultural challenges. The variety of stakeholders involved – spanning governments, industries, and users around the world – presents unique opportunities and governance questions for how best to facilitate the safe and equitable development, deployment, and use of innovative AI applications. Regulators around the world at the state, national, and international levels are actively considering next steps in regulating this suite of technologies, but with little sense of how their efforts can build on and reinforce one another. This state of affairs points to the need for novel approaches to nested governance, particularly among leading AI powers including the United States, European Union, and China. This Article provides an overview of AI and the numerous challenges it presents with special attention being paid to autonomous vehicles, along with exploring the lessons to be learned from polycentric governance frameworks and how to apply such social science constructs to the world of AI.

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documenttech-state-citizens

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Data Selves: More-than-Human Perspectives

Deborah Lupton | Springer

As people use self-tracking devices and other digital technologies, they generate increasing quantities of personal information online. These data have many benefits, but they can also be accessed and exploited by third parties.

In Data Selves, Deborah Lupton develops a fresh and intriguing perspective on how people make sense of and use their personal data, and what they know about others who use this information. Drawing on feminist new materialism theory and the anthropology of material culture, she acknowledges the importance of paying attention to practices, affects, sensory and other embodied experiences, as well as discourses, imaginaries and ideas in identifying the ways in which people make and enact data, and data make and enact people. Arguing that personal data are more-than-human phenomena, invested with diverse forms of vitalities, Lupton reveals significant implications for data futures, politics and ethics. Using rich examples from popular culture and empirical research, this book illustrates the power of data imaginaries, materializations and affects.

Lupton’s novel approach to understanding personal data will be of interest to students and scholars in media and cultural studies, sociology, anthropology, surveillance studies, and science and technology studies.

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The Digital Imaginary: Literature and Cinema of the Database

Roderick Coover | Bloomsbury

This book is available as open access through the Bloomsbury Open Access programme and is available on www.bloomsburycollections.com

Over the past half century, computing has profoundly altered the ways stories are imagined and told. Immersive, narrative, and database technologies transform creative practices and hybrid spaces revealing and concealing the most fundamental acts of human invention: making stories.

The Digital Imaginary illuminates these changes by bringing leading North American and European writers, artists and scholars, like Sharon Daniel, Stuart Moulthrop, Nick Montfort, Kate Pullinger and Geof Bowker, to engage in discussion about how new forms and structures change the creative process. Through interviews, commentaries and meta-commentaries, this book brings fresh insight into the creative process form differing, disciplinary perspectives, provoking questions for makers and readers about meaning, interpretation and utterance. The Digital Imaginary will be an indispensable volume for anyone seeking to understand the impact of digital technology on contemporary culture, including storymakers, educators, curators, critics, readers and artists, alike.

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Algorithmic Knowledge

Guido Sanguinetti, Lukas Engelmann | The Institute for the Study of Science, Technology and Innovation

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Rethinking Trust and Well-Being in a Digital Age

Jeff Hancock | Moody College of Communication

Prof. Jeff Hancock presents the 2019 Danielson Award lecture, “Rethinking Trust and Well-Being in a Digital Age.” A new trust framework is emerging – fueled by social, economic and technological forces that will profoundly alter how we trust, not only what

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Actually, it’s about Ethics, AI, and Journalism: Reporting on and with Computation and Data

Bernat Ivancsics, Mark Hansen | Columbia Journalism Review

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Cybernetic-Existentialism: Freedom, Systems, and Being-for-Others in Contemporary Arts and Performance

Steve Dixon | Routledge

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Can Artificial Intelligence Develop Mental Illness?

Hutan Ashrafian | The KPRC

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The surveillance industry is assisting state suppression. It must be stopped

David Kaye | The Guardian

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Biometric IDs and the remaking of the Indian (welfare) state

Ursula Rao | Economic Sociology

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Computing the Enigma of Love

Adam Berg | Glass Bead

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A framework for analysing antagonistic narrative strategies: A Russian tale of Swedish decline

C Wagnsson, C Barzanje | Media, War & Conflict

New information technologies and media consumption patterns have enabled aggressive practices that are qualitatively different from old-style propaganda. Actors no longer rely on secrecy, but can openly make use of social media and media outlets in foreign languages to destabilize other states and societies from within. Strategic narratives have become a key means in this endeavour. To expose the discursive (harmful) capacity of strategic narratives, the article suggests detailed analysis based on a narrative ontology. The analytical framework is applied in an exploratory case study of the Russian state-sponsored broadcasting company Sputnik’s strategic narrative about Sweden from 2014 to 2018. In addition to unmasking Sputnik’s strategic narrative, the article fills a gap in previous research in particular by exposing three antagonistic narrative strategies labelled ‘suppression’, ‘destruction’ and ‘direction’. These strategies reflect general driving forces in the security sphere and can inspire and structure future research into antagonistic strategic narration.

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Governing digital societies: Private platforms, public values

J van Dijck | Computer Law & Security Review

Online digital platforms have deeply penetrated every sector in society, disrupting markets, labor relations and institutions, while transforming social and civic practices. Moreover, platform dynamics have affected the very core of democratic processes and political communication. After a decade of platform euphoria, in which tech companies were celebrated for empowering ordinary users, problems have been mounting over the past three years. Disinformation, fake news, and hate speech spread via YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook poisoned public discourse and influenced elections. The Facebook—Cambridge Analytica scandal epitomized the many privacy breaches and security leaks dogging social media networks. Further compounded by charges of tax evasion and the undermining of fair labor laws, big tech companies are facing a serious ‘techlash’. As some argued, the promotion of longstanding public values such as tolerance, democracy, and transparency are increasingly compromised by the global ‘exports’ of American tech companies which dominate the online infrastructure for the distribution of online cultural goods: news, video, social talk, and private communication (Geltzer & Gosh, 2018). As extensively discussed in our book ‘The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connected World’, the digitization and ‘platformization’ of societies involve several intense struggles between competing ideological systems and their contesting actors, prompting important questions: Who should be responsible for anchoring public values in platform societies that are driven by algorithms and fueled by data? What kind of public values should be negotiated? And how can European citizens and governments guard certain social and cultural values while being dependent on a platform ecosystem which architecture is based on commercial values and is rooted in a neolibertarian world view?

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Moral Orthoses: a New Approach To Human and Machine Ethics

Marius Dorobantu Yorick Wilks | Zygon

Machines are increasingly involved in decisions with ethical implications, which require ethical explanations. Current machine learning algorithms are ethically inscrutable, but not in a way very different from human behavior. This article looks at the role of rationality and reasoning in traditional ethical thought and in artificial intelligence, emphasizing the need for some explainability of actions. It then explores Neil Lawrence’s embodiment factor as an insightful way of looking at the differences between human and machine intelligence, connecting it to the theological understanding of embodiment, relationality, and personhood. Finally, it proposes the notion of artificial moral orthoses, which could provide ethical explanations for both artificial and human agents, as a more promising unifying approach to human and machine ethics.

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Latin American politics underground: Networks, rhizomes and resistance in cartonera publishing

L Bell, P O’Hare | International Journal of Cultural Studies

Cartonera publishing emerged in post-crisis Buenos Aires with the birth of Eloísa cartonera (2003), whose founders proposed a radically new model of making books out of recycled cardboard, purchased from, and made with, cartoneros (waste-pickers). Since then, this model has been adapted across Latin America by an ever-growing number of collectives (currently around 250). In this article we ask: What relations and/or networks have enabled this model of underground cultural production to grow on such a scale? What modalities of resistance do they enable? Our contention is that Deleuze and Guattari’s theory of rhizomes helps in understanding the ways in which cartoneras work, network and spread. Examining texts and practices across Argentina, Mexico and Brazil through literary analysis and ethnography, we make a case for the political significance of cartonera networks and, more broadly, the possibilities afforded by rhizomatic formations for emerging modes of micro-political action and transnational cultural activism.

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Platform values and democratic elections: How can the law regulate digital disinformation?

C Marsden, T Meyer, I Brown | Computer Law & Security Review

This article examines how governments can regulate the values of social media companies that themselves regulate disinformation spread on their own platforms. We use ‘disinformation’ to refer to motivated faking of news. We examine the effects that disinformation initiatives (many based on automated decision-making systems using Artificial Intelligence [AI] to cope with the scale of content being shared) have on freedom of expression, media pluralism and the exercise of democracy, from the wider lens of tackling illegal content online and concerns to request proactive (automated) measures of online intermediaries. We particularly focus on the responses of the member states and institutions of the European Union. In Section 1, we argue that the apparent significance of the threat has led many governments to legislate despite this lack of evidence, with over 40 national laws to combat disinformation chronicled by March 2019. Which types of regulation are proposed, which actors are targeted, and who is making these regulations? Regulating fake news should not fall solely on national governments or supranational bodies like the European Union. Neither should the companies be responsible for regulating themselves. Instead, we favour co-regulation. Co-regulation means that the companies develop – individually or collectively – mechanisms to regulate their own users, which in turn must be approved by democratically legitimate state regulators or legislatures, who also monitor their effectiveness. In Section 2, we explain the current EU use of Codes of Conduct. In Section 3, we then explain the relatively novel idea that social media content regulation, and specifically disinformation, can be dealt with by deploying AI at massive scale. It is necessary to deal with this technological issue in order to explain the wider content of co-regulatory policy options, which we explain and for which we argue in Section 4. In Section 5 we explain what this means for technology regulation generally, and the socio-economic calculus in this policy field.

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Hackerspace Network: Prefiguring Technopolitical Futures?

LFR Murillo | American Anthropologist

Under the practical symbol of “hacking,” computer expertise has been translated into renewed forms of political action in the past two decades. In this article, I examine this phenomenon through the study of self‐organized collectives for technoscientific experts who identify as “hackers.” Based on multisited field research in global cities of the Pacific Rim, I describe the formation of a network of community spaces called “hackerspaces” with a focus on their exchange practices and transnational ties. The alternative globalization of hacking through these convivial spaces for socialization and self‐training has created new political locations and horizons, shifting the moral valence of hacking toward more open and collaborative practices. The hackerspace network is one of the key sites for the observation of this transformation for prefiguring new technical and political practices, hence its relevance for anthropological studies of technology and politics in the contemporary moment. [computing, expertise, hacking, technopolitics, hackerspaces]

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The Growing Nostalgia for Past Regulatory Misadventures and the Risk of Repeating These Mistakes With Big Tech

Christine S. Wilson, Keith Klovers | Journal of Antitrust Enforcement

Digital markets are increasingly described as the ‘railroads’ of the 21st century. Extending that metaphor, some commentators argue we should revive stale railroad-era economic regulations and adapt them to the digital age. This enthusiasm appears to be buoyed by both a sudden nostalgia for railroad and airline regulations once administered by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) and an equally sudden amnesia of the enormous harm those regulations caused to consumers. ICC and CAB regulations are indeed an apt metaphor, as they illustrate perfectly how sectoral regulations sold to the public as simple, clear, and cheap can go awry. Ultimately, a bipartisan consensus emerged to disband those agencies and deregulate those industries. After deregulation, prices fell, output expanded, and firms innovated. Proposals to regulate Big Tech today in a similar fashion forget these important lessons. We should know better than to do the same thing again today and expect a different result.

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‘It’s So Hard Not To Be Funny in This Situation’: Memes and Humor in U.S. Youth Online Political Expression

Joel Penney | Television & New Media

In light of the promise of humorous political memes as popular routes to citizen empowerment as well as concerns over their potential dangers, it is necessary to examine how everyday citizens make sense of their role in political expression and how they engage with them—or not—in their everyday social media activities. This focus group study explores these questions by focusing on the digital practices of U.S. young adults. The findings suggest a range of benefits of posting political memes and humor online, including building solidarity with likeminded peers and reinforcing communal identity, as well as advancing accessible and influential political critiques. However, these positive assessments are complicated by concerns over the relationship between political meme humor and threats of trivialization and hyper-polarization, which limit some users from participating in its circulation and lead them to seek alternative modes of online engagement that are perceived as more civically valuable.

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Do Deepfakes Pose a Golden Opportunity? Considering Whether English Law Should Adopt California’s Publicity Right in the Age of the Deepfake

Kelsey Farish | Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice

The earliest deepfake videos to gain notoriety were those featuring famous actresses, whose faces had been superimposed onto the bodies of pornographic performers. The technology has since spread rapidly beyond the adult entertainment industry, and there is growing concern over the ways in which deepfakes may be used to extort, intimidate, humiliate or defame. This is relevant for non-celebrity victims as well, given the average person’s propensity to share photographs of themselves on social media, and thereby providing an abundance of source material for a…

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Technology and Protest: the Political Effects of Electronic Voting in India

Zuheir Desai, Alexander Lee | Political Science Research and Methods

Electronic voting technology is often proposed as translating voter intent to vote totals better than alternative systems such as paper ballots. We suggest that electronic voting machines (EVMs) can also alter vote choice, and, in particular, the way in which voters register anti-system sentiment. This paper examines the effects of the introduction of EVMs in India, the world’s largest democracy, using a difference-in-differences methodology that takes advantage of the technology’s gradual introduction. We find that EVMs are associated with dramatic declines in the incidence of invalid votes, and corresponding increases in vote for minor candidates. There is ambiguous evidence for EVMs decreasing turnout, no evidence for increases in rough proxies of voter error or fraud, and no evidence that machines with an auditable paper trail perform differently from other EVMs. The results highlight the interaction between voter technology and voter protest, and the substitutability of different types of protest voting.

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What Happens to Counter-Culture When Everything Is Swallowed Up By #Content?

Billie Muraben | Elephant

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Is technology making police better — or worse?

Barry Friedman | Recode Decode

Barry Friedman, the director of The Policing Project at New York University’s School of Law, talks with Recode’s Kara Swisher about making police more accountable, the ethics of emerging technologies like AI and facial recognition, and the missing regulations that affect local communities in the US. Friedman also talks about his work with the company that created the Taser, Axon International — whose CEO Rick Smith will appear on Wednesday’s episode of Recode Decode — and why there’s not as much data about police work as one might assume.Featuring:Barry Friedman (@barryfriedman1), director of The Policing Project (@policingproject) and author of Unwarranted: Policing Without Permission.Hosts:Kara Swisher (@karaswisher), Recode co-founder and editor-at-largeMore to explore:Subscribe for free to Reset, Recode’s new podcast that explores why — and how — tech is changing everything.About Recode by Vox:Recode by Vox helps you understand how tech is changing the world — and changing us.Follow Us:Newsletter: Recode DailyTwitter: @Recode and @voxdotcom Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

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The Beauty of Detours: A Batesonian Philosophy of Technology

Yoni Van Den Eede | SUNY Press

The Beauty of Detours proposes a new way of understanding and defining technology by reading systems thinker Gregory Bateson in the framework of contemporary philosophy of technology. Although “technology” was not an explicit focus of Bateson’s oeuvre, Yoni Van Den Eede shows that his thought is permeated with insights directly relevant to contemporary technological concerns. This book provides a systematic reading of Bateson that reveals these under-investigated elements of his thought. It also critiques the field of philosophy of technology for still reifying “technology” too much despite its attempt to de-reify it, arguing instead that it should incorporate Bateson’s insights and focus more on processes of human knowing. Sketching a Batesonian philosophy of technology, Van Den Eede calls for greater attentiveness to the purpose of technology and its role in our lives.

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Despotic Data: how authoritarian regimes are driving technology and innovation

Noam Yuchtman | LSE: Public lectures and events

Speaker(s): Professor Noam Yuchtman | Data has become crucial in the production of our goods and services, particularly when it comes to the production of new technology and innovation such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). Access to data is often a bottleneck in the development of AI and ML. Whilst authoritarian regimes are considered to hinder innovation, they benefit from having access to large amounts of data which in the democratic world depends on strict laws and cultural perceptions around privacy. Hear from Noam Yuchtman, recipient of the British Academy’s Global Professorship and Professor of Managerial Economics and Strategy at LSE, as he explains the reasons why authoritarian regimes – such as China – are becoming world leaders in technology, innovation and artificial intelligence. Noam Yuchtman is Professor of Managerial Economics and Strategy at LSE’s Department of Management. John Van Reenen (@johnvanreenen) is Ronald Coase Chair in Economics and School Professor, Department of Economics, LSE. The Department of Management (@LSEManagement) is a world class centre for education and research in business and management. Twitter Hashtag for this event: #LSEDespoticData This event forms part of the “Shape the World” series, held in the run up to the LSE Festival, a week-long series of events taking place from Monday 2 to Saturday 7 March 2020, free to attend and open to all, exploring how social sciences can make the world a better place. The full programme will be available online from January 2020.

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Ethics and Religion in the Age of Social Media: Digital Proverbs for Responsible Citizens

Kevin Healey | Routledge

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Let’s draw and talk about urban change: Deploying digital technology to encourage citizen participation in urban planning

Mark Tewdwr-Jones, Alexander Wilson | Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science

Enhancing the role of citizens in shaping places has been a longstanding objective for governments, communities and the academy. Although a range of techniques has been developed by the state to give people an opportunity to get involved, these methods often struggle to create a meaningful way to communicate aspirations for places on citizens’ terms. In this paper, we document the design, deployments and evaluation of a new technological device that enabled participants to share place views and aspirations beyond more traditional government engagement methods. The device, called JigsAudio, is an open-source device fabricated by the authors that encourages people to express themselves creatively through drawing and talking. The research contributes to our understanding of how accessible and free technologies can reduce barriers to participation, whilst encouraging creativity and expression when talking about the future of places. It goes on to discuss the potential of devices such as JigsAudio conceptually and practically within urban and regional change, and considers the balance that needs to be struck between utilising smart technology whilst creating accessible and meaningful opportunities that inspire citizens.

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Moved by Machines: Performance Metaphors and Philosophy of Technology

Mark Coeckelbergh | Routledge

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Essays in Post-Critical Philosophy of Technology

Mihály Héder, Eszter Nádasi | Vernon Press

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Politics and Self in the Age of Digital Re(producibility)

Robert W. Williams | Fast Capitalism

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The Road to Digital Unfreedom: President Xi’s Surveillance State

Xiao Qiang | Journal of Democracy

Since President Xi Jinping came to power in 2012, China has significantly increased controls over its already censored cyberspace—with a ruling that will allow jail terms for spreading “rumors” online, a cybersecurity law that will facilitate state control and data access, crackdowns on unauthorized VPN connections, and emphasis on the concept of “internet sovereignty.” At the same time, technological innovations in such areas as big-data analytics, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things are increasingly being harnessed to monitor the lives and activities of China’s 1.4 billion people. The new arsenal of the Chinese surveillance state includes mass video-surveillance projects incorporating facial-recognition technology; voice-recognition software that can identify speakers on phone calls; and a sweeping and intrusive program of DNA collection. In addition, officials are at work on a nationwide Social Credit System (SCS) intended to assess the conduct of every Chinese citizen.

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Repression technology: Internet accessibility and state violence

Anita R. Gohdes | American Journal of Political Science

This article offers a first subnational analysis of the relationship between
states’ dynamic control of Internet access and their use of violent repression. I argue that
where governments provide Internet access, surveillance of digital information exchange
can provide intelligence which enables the use of more targeted forms of repression, in
particular in areas not fully controlled by regime. Increasing restrictions on Internet accessibility can impede opposition organization, but limits access to information on precise
targets, resulting in an increase in untargeted repression. I present new data on killings
in the Syrian conflict that distinguish between targeted and untargeted events, using
supervised text classification. I find that higher levels of Internet accessibility are associated with increases in targeted repression, whereas areas with limited access experience
more indiscriminate campaigns of violence. The results offer important implications on
how governments incorporate the selective access to communication technology into their
strategies of coercion.

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Urban planning, public participation and digital technology: App development as a method of generating citizen involvement in local planning processes

Alexander Wilson, Mark Tewdwr-Jones, Rob Comber | Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science

There has been a recent shift in England towards empowering citizens to shape their neighbourhoods. However, current methods of participation are unsuitable or unwieldy for many people. In this paper, we report on ChangeExplorer, a smart watch application to support citizen feedback, to investigate the extent to which digital wearables can address barriers to participation in planning. The research contributes to both technology-mediated citizen involvement and urban planning participation methods. The app leverages in-situ, quick interactions encouraging citizens to reflect and comment on their environment. Taking a case study approach, the paper discusses the design and deployment of the app in a local planning authority through interviews with 19 citizens and three professional planners. The paper discusses the potential of the ChangeExplorer app to address more conceptual issues, and concludes by assessing the degree to which the technology raises awareness of urban change and whether it could serve as a gateway to more meaningful participatory methods.

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Movement to market, currency to property: the rise and fall of Bitcoin as an anti-state movement, 2009–2014

Christopher J Lawrence, Stephanie Lee Mudge | Socio-Economic Review

Can social movements mobilize market devices to challenge the political–economic order? Focusing on Bitcoin, we argue that an effective anti-state market device needs to be durably ‘counterearmarked’, to use Viviana Zelizer’s term, with radical meaning. This durability, however, requires that the movement build alliances with holders of political and economic power who also embrace the device’s radical meaning, lest those actors reformat the device to suit their purposes. To make this case, we locate Bitcoin’s radical origins in a performative project built on elements of Austrian monetary theory. We then track Bitcoin’s dual transformation between 2009 and 2014: the anti-state movement gave way to a market featuring big financial players, and the Internal Revenue Service officially redefined the bitcoin currency as property. Understanding this dual transformation requires joining Zelizerian conceptions of money with theories of markets-and-movements on the one hand, and symbolic-cultural conceptions of the classificatory state on the other.

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Justice in the Digital State: Assessing the next revolution in administrative justice

Joe Tomlinson | Bristol University Press

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Philosophy of Technology: Who Is in the Saddle?

Jeremy Swartz, Janet Wasko, Carolyn Marvin | Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly

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Anti-scientism, technoscience and philosophy of technology: Wittgenstein and Lyotard

Michael A. Peters | Educational Philosophy and Theory

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Monsterization, Mechanization, Contradiction: Marx’s Rhetoric of Technology

Ian E. J. Hill | A Journal of Economics, Culture & Society

This essay examines Marx’s style and argumentation to argue that Marx crafted a rhetoric of technology that has empowered critics and theorists to assert that he advocated a range of competing philosophies of technology. It analyzes Marx’s use of monsterization and mechanization tropes to show how his technological writings can be associated with multiple conceptions of technology, including technological determinism, technological domination, social constructivism, and human/nonhuman assemblages. Monsterization is intended to mean the attribution of monstrous characteristics to things or people while mechanization is the attribution of machinelike characteristics to nonmechanical things. The essay then turns its rhetorical analysis toward Marx’s argumentation to show how his use of contradictions has aligned his writings with technological neutrality, liberation technology, and political technology. Monsterization, mechanization, and contradiction thus provide the textual evidence for Marx’s philosophical multiplicity while also articulating a wide-ranging rhetoric of mid-nineteenth-century industrial technology.

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Marxism and technocracy: Günther Anders and the necessity for a critique of technology

Jason Dawsey | Thesis Eleven

This article examines why Günther Anders, one of the 20th century’s most formidable critics of technology, deemed a critique of technology necessary at all. I argue that the radical philosophy of industrialism in Die Antiquiertheit des Menschen (The Obsolescence of Human Beings) and related texts is a response to what Anders’s work presents as inadequacies of traditional Marxism, with its focus on class struggle and property relations. In effect, his critique of technology, which is more attentive to forms of domination emergent with mechanization, would come to supplant classical Marxist thought. The piece concludes with some thoughts about how Anders’s ‘post-Marxist’ perspective provides insights for contemporary Marxism and, in turn, how the latter can throw light on problems in Anders’s philosophy of the machine.

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Sokolovskiy, Sergei. Bodies and Technologies through the Prism of Techno-Anthropology

Sergey Sokolovskiy | Forum for Anthropology and Culture. № 15, 2019

The paper deals with the interface of the human body and (new) technologies; its aim being an overview of the field witha purpose to include the relevant topics within the legitimate concerns of anthropology. The author discusses the choicefrom competing theories and conceptual tools, necessary for the study of corporeality and technology, as well as theirinteraction. The concepts of body schema and body image serve as conceptual tools and examples of various forms ofbodily integration with technical apparatus in different types of media, both real and virtual, offline and online. Theanalogy between the concept of Umwelt, introduced by German bio-semiotician Jakob von Uexküll for animal perceptionanalysis, and the concept of technosphere by humans, provides a unique perspective on technical milieu as essential partof various human-machine assemblages. It is argued that lived (phenomenological) body, social body and physical bodyhave their own modi of presence and forms of integration with technical objects in different types of virtual and actualreality

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How to Deal with Hybrids in the Anthropocene? Towards a Philosophy of Technology and Environmental Philosophy 2.0

Magdalena Hoły-Łuczaj, Vincent Blok | Environmental Values

The Anthropocene overthrows classical dichotomies like technology and nature and a new class of beings emerges: hybrids. The transitive status of hybrids – which establishes an extra, separate, ‘third’ ontological category, going beyond the dichotomy between nature and technology – constitutes a significant problem for environmental philosophy and philosophy of technology since they traditionally focus on either ‘nature’ (natural entities) or ‘artefacts’ (technological objects). In order to reflect on the ethical significance of hybrids, a classification of different types of hybrids is required. Such a classification is provided by this article, based on insights from both environmental philosophy and philosophy of technology. After explaining why a new class of beings emerges in the Anthropocene, and reflecting on the one-sidedness of philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy in their focus on either technology or nature, we propose a new classification of hybrids in this article that provides a new starting point for reflections on the moral significance of hybrids in environmental philosophy and philosophy of technology.

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Heidegger and Stiegler on failure and technology

Ruth Irwin | Educational Philosophy and Theory

Heidegger argues that modern technology is quantifiably different from all earlier periods because of a shift in ethos from in situ craftwork to globalised production and storage at the behest of consumerism. He argues that this shift in technology has fundamentally shaped our epistemology, and it is almost impossible to comprehend anything outside the technological enframing of knowledge. The exception is when something breaks down, and the fault ‘shows up’ in fresh ways. Stiegler has several important addendums to Heidegger’s thesis. Heidegger fails to fully appreciate the early Greek myth of Prometheus, and the technological depth that fire offers all human societies. The fall, or failure, is doubled in the myth of Prometheus, and is at the root of all cultures. Since the onset of Information Technology, the acceleration of life is disorientating our Being. I argue the fall in both Heidegger and Stiegler has encaptured their imagination. Education is vital for generating the imaginary, along with the ability to think critically, and ensures the authenticity of political processes, but as importantly, it helps us to imagine the future beyond the Armaggedon scenarios of climate change, and ecological devastation. The Arts and Humanities are at the core of generating a new future.

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The Work of Art in the Age of Artificial Intelligence: What Artists Can Teach Us About the Ethics of Data Practice

Luke Stark, Kate Crawford | Visibilities and New Models of Policing

Problematic use of data, patterns of bias emerging in AI systems, and the role of platforms like Facebook and Twitter during elections have thrown the issue of data ethics into sharp relief. Yet the focus of conversations about data ethics has centered on computer scientists, engineers, and designers, with far less attention paid to the digital practices of artists and others in the cultural sector. Artists have historically deployed new technologies in unexpected and often prescient ways, making them a community able to speak directly to the changing and nuanced ethical questions faced by those who use data and machine learning systems. We conducted interviews with thirty-three artists working with digital data, with a focus on how artists prefigure and commonly challenge data practices and ethical concerns of computer scientists, researchers, and the wider population. We found artists were frequently working to produce a sense of defamiliarization and critical distance from contemporary digital technologies in their audiences. The ethics of using large-scale data and AI systems for these artists were generally developed in ongoing conversations with other practitioners in their communities and in relation to a longer history of art practice.

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Cocurated Digital Culture: Machinima

Tracy Harwood | The MIT Press Journal

This article explores hybrid curatorial practices that have developed around digital “socio-techno-cultural” practices such as machinima. Machinima is a creative cultural movement that has evolved considerably since its emergence in 1996. The article highlights interrelated themes of curatorial practice: coevolving sense-making and social consumption; creative cognition and exploratory visualization; technologies as cultural intermediaries; social products, materialized expression and collective memory; capturing contexts through cocuration; and sustainability and stability of cultural capital. The article concludes that curation is a process of continually evolving interpretation of the artifact, representing shifts in the technology landscape, network of community members and audience interactions.

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Understanding Digital Events: Bergson, Whitehead, and the Experience of the Digital

David Kreps | Routledge

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Karl Marx, Digital Technology, and Liberation Theology

Peter McLaren, Petar Jandrić | Beijing International Review of Education

Since 2011 Peter McLaren and Petar Jandrić have written a dozen of dialogic articles focused to critical pedagogy in the age of information technology and liberation theology. These articles are packed with Peter McLaren’s interpretations of Karl Marx in various contexts, yet they never focused explicitly to McLaren’s Marxist thought. In this article we present a collection of Peter McLaren’s interpretations of Karl Marx written during 8 years of working together. Developed and published in various contexts, insights in this article do not present a complete overview of Peter McLaren’s understanding of Marxism. Yet, focusing to extremely radically different themes of information technology and liberation theology, Peter McLaren’s views present a rich source for understanding Marxist theory in the 21st century.

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Dividual Revolution: What Can Philosophy Do in the Digital Present?

Anaïs Nony | Cultural Critique

To speak about revolution, either as an event or as a concept, must appear presumptuous at a moment when racial discrimination, fascist politics, and the totalitarian war against women and minorities are amplified by a market economy based on systemic division. In the digital present, the systematization of division is magnified by newly algorithmic structures of machinic capitalism. In that context, the more the intellect aims to grasp the depth of revolutionary actions, the less the latter seem to make sense. In other words, both the failure and the promise of revolution have created a modern paradigm to address the political struggles of our times, one that is cyclically repeating itself to challenge the limits of humankind. And yet, one can always find reasons to interrogate the symptoms of revolutionary tragedies that proliferate against a background of intellectual numbness.

In DIVIDUUM: Machinic Capitalism and Molecular Revolution, the German philosopher Gerald Raunig asks us to ponder what division has to do with revolution and proposes to attend to revolutionary temporality in a molecular way. To address revolution, Raunig proposes to think about molecular forms of organization as functioning horizontally, at a temporal level that both resists and disrupts imposed categories of values, power, and their hegemonic mode of implementation in today’s digital societies. The horizontal—which is in conversation with the rhizomatic in Deleuze and Guattari—calls for a temporality that is related to dividuality. By dividuality Raunig means a principle for division understood to produce both domination and emancipation. Crucial in the book is the link it forges between division and revolution as a framework to unpack the joint power of domination and emancipation. To link division and temporality, Raunig proposes [End Page 179] to go back to processes of machinic accumulation to include pre-Marxist forms of patriarchy and slavery. He questions how systems of exploitation and enslavement are made possible by the imposition of a dividual principle at the core of both obedience and disobedience, conformity and noncompliant divisions. Here division is a dividuality principle (division is inherent to all that it is), a dividual tendency (division is a dynamic quality that shapes relations), and a dividuum (division is a temporal operation). Engaged with the modalities of partition and extraction that are deployed in capitalist systems of domination, Raunig confronts the machinic operations of capitalism and positions the concept of the dividual as it develops in early Scholasticism, that is, prior to the advent of capitalism. The value of this approach is to think about the implementation of capitalist structures of dispossession, extraction, and partition long before Marxism emerged to theorize them.

In elaborating the notion of dividuality, the relation between economy and domination can be grasped as “annihilation of space by time” (Marx 424), or, to put it in more contemporary terms, “how every act of exploitation … depends upon an even greater act of appropriation” (Moore 54). When one is reading Raunig, it is useful to put Marxist theory in dialogue with operations of domination that pertain to the relationality of space and time to include colonialism, slavery, and patriarchy. What matters in terms of revolution is not the implementation of a linear scheme but the constant adaptation of dividual modalities as a means to both separate and aggregate temporalities. For Raunig, this adaptation, or modulation, calls to address the manifold complexity of division by looking at the long history of appropriation and by questioning the mechanization and automation of accumulation as a means of oppression in today’s digital economy. In other words, the political value of the book resides in the consideration of a wider, longer, and more complex framework from which to question the becoming-dividual of social relations and assess how division and its dividuality principle resonate with the possibility of revolution in the digital present.

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Power in Action: Democracy, citizenship and social justice

Steven Friedman | Wits University Press

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Spectres of Transnationalism: Changing Terrains of Sociology of Law

Roger Cotterrell | Journal of Law and Society

The growth of ‘legal transnationalism’– that is, the reach of law across nation‐state borders and the impact of external political and legal pressures on nation‐state law – undermines the main foundations of sociology of law. Modern sociology of law has assumed an ‘instrumentalist’ view of law as an agency of the modern directive state, but now it has to adjust to the state’s increasingly complex regulatory conditions. The kind of convergence theory that underpins analysis of much legal transnationalism is inadequate for socio‐legal theory, and old ideas of ‘law’ and ‘society’ as the foci of sociology of law are no longer appropriate. Socio‐legal theory should treat law as a continuum of unstable, competing authority claims. Instead of taking ‘society’ as its reference point, it should conceptualize the contrasting types of regulatory needs of the networks of community (often not confined by nation‐state boundaries) that legal transnationalism addresses.

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The legal constitution of market society: Probing the economic sociology of law

Sabine Frerichs | Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies

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Why Must Legal Ideas Be Interpreted Sociologically?

Roger Cotterrell | Journal of Law and Society

Sociology of law and socio‐legal studies are sometimes declared unable to give insight into the nature of legal ideas or to clarify questions about legal doctrine. The idea that law has its own ‘truth’– its own way of seeing the world – has been used to deny that sociological perspectives have any special claim to provide understanding of law as doctrine. This paper tries to specify what sociological understanding of legal ideas entails. It argues that such an understanding is not merely useful but necessary for legal studies. Legal scholarship entails sociological understanding of law. The two are inseparable.

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Max Weber’s Tragic Modernism and the Study of Law in Society

David M. Trubek | Law and Society Review 573

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Law, Capitalism, and the Liberal State: The Historical Sociology of James Willard Hurst

William J. Novak | The American Society for Legal History

Two legacies vie to take the measure of the work of Willard Hurst. The first understands Hurst primarily in his formal role as the “founding father” of an academic sub-specialty known as “American legal history”—the author of a canonical text Law and the Conditions of Freedom, and the coiner of interpretive phrases like “legal instrumentalism” and “the release of energy” that established the boundaries of disciplinary debate for two generations of acolytes and dissenters. The second legacy flows from the substantive range of Hurst’s research and writing as a whole—the depth and breadth of an intellectual project that tears at and transcends the very disciplinary borders being constructed by his texts and phrases. In this essay, I will ignore the first perspective, which tends to dominate hagiographic and commemorative commentaries.

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Carl Schmitt’s Legal Fascism

David Ohana | Politics, Religion & Ideology

Carl Schmitt, the supreme jurist of the Third Reich, bestowed legal legitimacy on Hitler’s dictatorial rule. A genealogy of his primary writings of the German jurist shows that his romance with the Nazis was not the result of an historical accident, and proves that there is a thread running from his early theoretical writings to his juridical position and his radical political activity during the thirties. Schmitt is a member of the ‘nihilist order’—thinkers, artists and cultural critics who promogulated the nihilistic position which at the same time was a dynamic structure on a totalitarian basis. The members of the ‘nihilist order’ generally moved from nihilistic criticism to totalitarian conclusions. Schmitt, on the other hand, took the opposite route—from totalitarianism to nihilism.

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Immigration Detention, Punishment and the Transformation of Justice

Mary Bosworth | Social & Legal Studies

In this article, I examine the changing nature of punishment under conditions of mass mobility. Drawing on research conducted in immigration removal centres in the UK, I will show how porous boundaries between administrative penalties and criminal penalties have made the two systems co-constitutive and, in so doing, have drawn into question the liberal foundations of punishment. As foreigners face additional, administrative burdens and are subject to processes of differentiation and exclusion simply by virtue of their citizenship, I suggest, basic values of due process, fairness and equality of treatment and outcome, are drawn into question. As a consequence, justice itself is transformed.

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Fuck the law: decolonizing nomophilitis with the discourse of love

Biko Agozino | Globalizations

This papyrus questions the assumption that global cultures and especially Indigenous peoples are to be civilized and modernized by being subjected to the rule of European law, Euro Reschtaat, under racist, patriarchal imperialism as a result of centuries of dehumanizing conquest, genocide, slavery, apartheid and colonization. Giannacopoulos raised similar questions about how feasible it is to expect that the love of the law, nomophilia, would be the answer to the institutionalized racism-sexism-classism that Indigenous peoples and poor refugees face under settler colonialism? This papyrus raises the additional question of whether young people around the world are crazy for giving the middle finger salute to the empire of law or whether defiant Hip Hop artists may be expressing understandable decolonization discourse against legal imperialism without criminologists and legal scholars being aware.

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Law and Civilization: Norbert Elias as a Regulation Theorist

Robert van Krieken | Annual Review of Law and Social Science

The German sociologist Norbert Elias developed a wide-ranging sociological analysis of the interconnections between processes of state formation, institutional dynamics, and individual subjectivity, or habitus, and the logic of their processes of transformation over time. His work has had significant impact on social scientific thought in a wide variety of fields, including the historical sociology of the self, violence, crime and punishment, organizations, emotions, sexuality, social control, and sport. His influence in legal scholarship, however, has concentrated in criminology, with only sporadic use of his ideas in relation to other topics in law and social science research. This review highlights the ways in which Elias can be read as a theorist of regulation by outlining (a) the core elements of Elias’s “process-figurational” sociology and his analysis of processes of civilization and decivilization; (b) Elias’s observations on law and state formation; (c) a selection of the sociolegal research related to his sociological approach, in fields such as crime and punishment, evolving modes of regulation, and international relations; and (d) the potential future directions in which Elias’s process-figurational approach might move in sociolegal research and scholarship. These include the emotional dimensions of family law, human rights and humanitarianism, the intersections of legal evolution and broader processes of social change, legal pluralism and legal culture, tort law, constitutionalism, and the rule of law.

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Populism and the Rule of Law

Robert van Krieken | Annual Review of Law and Social Science

The resurgence of populism in Europe and North America is widely thought to have placed the rule of law under pressure. But how many of the relevant developments are indeed associated with populism? And is any such association a contingent or analytic matter: Does populism inevitably threaten the rule of law, or do other conditions intervene to shape its impact? After setting out how I understand the rule of law and populism, I examine the ways in which contemporary populist discourse has challenged the rule of law through a variety of mechanisms—notably agenda setting, policy impact, influence on discretionary decisions, and convention trashing—considering the institutional and social conditions that conduce to strengthen or weaken these mechanisms in particular contexts. Finally, I consider the implications of the analysis for contemporary criminalization, assessing how many of the factors producing penal populism or overcriminalization are truly a product of populism.

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Urban citizenship under post-Soviet conditions: Grassroots struggles of residents in contemporary Moscow

Christian Fröhlich | Journal of Urban Affairs

This paper studies local urban activism in contemporary Russia and relates neighborhood protests and urban citizenship to conflicts over housing-related public space. It situates Moscow as a cumulative space of post-Soviet neoliberal and authoritarian urban development and shows how and why Muscovites have opposed this development by engaging in local grassroots initiatives. The empirical analysis employs data from interviews with participants in two neighborhood protests against unwanted construction in their districts. It reveals patterns of active citizenship related to a rights-based approach to the living environment, the rejection of mainstream politics, and the building of new solidarity-based communities. Russian residents are voicing their dissent and building solidarity in their local living environments while innovatively navigating a highly limited public sphere and insisting on their right to participate in urban governance.

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The micropolitics of border struggles: migrants’ squats and inhabitance as alternatives to citizenship

Deanna Dadusc | Citizenship Studies

This paper discusses the struggles of the We Are Here movement in Amsterdam as resistance to both securitarian and humanitarian border regimes. It explores the tensions between everyday forms of commoning emerging in migrants’ squats and technologies of enclosure and capture. In the first place, the paper contends that the creation of housing squats marked an important shift in migrants’ struggles that went from acts of protest to the performance of resistance at the level of the micropolitics of borders. By squatting buildings and creating common living spaces, current struggles mobilize material, affective and political solidarities and constitute a politics of inhabitance beyond and against dependency on the state and humanitarian practices. The second part of the paper discusses the government’s attempts to repress, govern and enclose the We Are Here movement within confined fields of action. With negotiations and humanitarian concessions through the provision of emergency shelters, local authorities attempted to re-direct the movement into politics of rights and recognitions. However, these tactics did not succeed to contain the struggle in its entirety: many migrants rejected humanitarian solutions, continued to create radical home spaces through squatting, enacting a politics of inhabitance beyond citizenship.

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Citizenship as a gift: how Syrian refugees in Belgium make sense of their social rights

Robin Vandevoordt, Gert Verschraegen | Citizenship Studies

While citizenship scholars have documented the increasing moralisation of immigration and integration policies, relatively few have explored how immigrants themselves make sense of their (partial) membership of European welfare states. Drawing on semi-structured interviews and participant observation with Syrian refugees, this article documents how they interpret and act upon the partial and limited citizenship status they are given in Belgium. We focus on one dimension of their experiences: their stigmatic dependency upon the Belgian welfare state. While their accounts can be partly understood as reproducing neoliberal discourses, we argue that they are also a strategic reaction against the dependency that is inadvertently created by European welfare states. From our respondents’ perspectives, their social rights thus appear not so much as entitlements to be claimed, but as a continuation of the humanitarian logic of the (unreciprocated) gift.

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Democratic Citizenship as Uruguayan Cultural Heritage

Robin Rodd | Democratic Theory

Amidst a global turn towards authoritarianism and populism, there are few contemporary examples of state-led democratization. This article discusses how Uruguay’s Frente Amplio (FA) party has drawn on a unique national democratic cultural heritage to encourage a coupling of participatory and representative institutions in “a politics of closeness.” The FA has reinvigorated Batllismo, a discourse associated with social justice, civic republicanism, and the rise of Uruguayan social democracy in the early twentieth century. At the same time, the FA’s emphasis on egalitarian participation is inspired by the thought of Uruguay’s independence hero José Artigas. I argue that the cross-weave of party and movement, and of democratic citizenship and national heritage, encourages the emergence of new figures of the citizen and new permutations for connecting citizens with representative institutions. The FA’s “politics of closeness” is an example of how state-driven democratization remains possible in an age described by some as “post-democratic.”

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Leitkultur debates as civic integration in North-Western Europe: The nationalism of ‘values’ and ‘good citizenship’

Per Mouritsen, Daniel Faas, Nasar Meer, Nynke de Witte | Ethnicities

Political responses to ethno-religious diversity often include the idea of a common culture or (core) values, e.g., the German Leitkultur and comparable concepts in Denmark and the Netherlands. These intellectual debates underlie and inform different types of civic integration policies. Their structure demonstrates the discursive connection between the ostensibly liberal and universal components of the latter – which are often heralded as signs of waning nationalism – with strong emphases on identity and cultural identity. Hence, each debate concerns (1) forms of societal integration, oriented towards (2) forms of civicness, which are nonetheless (3) also cultural, and (4) national. Within this common structure, variation exists as to what should be ‘common,’ what it takes to share it, and the very point of doing so. Advocacy of Leitkultur as so many attempts to civilise newcomers – or exclude those who are unamenable to such efforts – reflects the continuing core of nationalistic ambition despite novel semantic content. This ambition, which equivocates between dubious ‘manifest’ functions – educating minorities, reminding majorities of forgotten heritage – fails also to serve ‘latent’ functions of trust and solidarity building.

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Neoliberalism’s Assault on Women’s Citizenship: The Case of Nuisance Laws and Intimate Partner Violence in the United States

Gretchen Arnold | The Sociological Quarterly

Nuisance laws in the U.S. fine or evict people for calling 911 repeatedly, and are often enforced against battered women. Using interviews with primarily poor battered women of color, I show how nuisance laws abridge their rights and prevent them from participating as citizens in a community of equals. I also argue that these laws are an example of neoliberal policy and operate to contain and exclude battered women from the rest of society, narrowing their options for action and leaving them vulnerable to intimate abuse. I conclude that, insofar as nuisance laws undercut policies intended to protect women from gender-based violence, they roll back gains in women’s equality and amplify gender oppression.

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Digitalizing the welfare state: citizenship discourses in Danish digitalization strategies from 2002 to 2015

Jannick Schou, Morten Hjelholt | Critical Policy Studies

As governments worldwide become increasingly reliant on digital technologies and e-government, ‘digital citizenship’ has become an important topic for research and policy-makers alike. While often described as the contemporary ‘ideal’ of citizenship, research has tended to downplay the normative dimensions of digital citizenship. Counter to such depoliticized approaches, this article argues that the digital citizen is a deeply political figure. Through a discourse-theoretical analysis of Danish governmental digitalization strategies from 2002 to 2015, the article shows how these have relied on a very particular image of the digital citizen. More specifically, we showcase how this figure has reproduced neoliberal conceptions of subjectivity, concerned with efficiency, productivity, individualization and collective responsibilization. By shedding light on these novel links between neoliberal and digital citizenship, the article challenges current views on digitalization. The article foregrounds how digitalization serves to reproduce and recast already-existing political rationalities and must be considered in relation to neoliberal hegemony.

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A New Institution on the Block: On Platform Urbanism and Airbnb Citizenship

Niels van Doorn | New Media & Society

This paper discusses the new phenomenon of platform ad archives. Over the past year, leading social media platforms have installed publicly accessible databases documenting their political advertisements, and several countries have moved to regulate them. If designed and implemented properly, ad archives can correct for structural informational asymmetries in the online advertising industry, and thereby improve accountability through litigation and through publicity. However, present implementations leave much to be desired. We discuss key criticisms, suggest several improvements and identify areas for future research and debate

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Why We Cheer for Viktor Ahn: Changing Characteristics of Sporting Nationalism and Citizenship in South Korea in the Era of Neoliberal Globalization

Jinsook Kim | Communication & Sport

This article examines online discussions of the South Korean–born Russian short-track speed skater Viktor Ahn, formerly known as Ahn Hyun-soo, with a particular focus on the changing characteristics of nationalism in South Korea (hereafter Korea). Despite Korea’s long history of sporting nationalism, the unexpected public support for Ahn has inspired popular and academic discussions regarding whether this nationalism is in fact weakening. I begin by exploring explanations for Ahn’s continuing popularity in Korea and how critiques of the Korean Skating Union have spread to other aspects of Korean society. Next, I examine the representation of Ahn as a role model for the desirable cosmopolitan subject with flexible citizenship who is able to transcend national borders in the pursuit of individual success. I argue, however, that Korea’s embrace of Ahn is less an indication that nationalism has been waning than it is a reclamation of Koreanness and a manifestation of a desire for national strength articulated through the conflation of traditional ethnic and developmental nationalism with neoliberal ideology. My ultimate goal, then, is to offer a nuanced understanding of the changing characteristics of sporting nationalism and citizenship in the era of neoliberal globalization.

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Digital Citizenship in a Datafied Society

Arne Hintz, Lina Dencik, Karin Wahl-Jorgensen | Polity

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Modernization and Household Composition in India, 1983–2009

Etienne Breton | Population and Development Review

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A crisis in education? An Arendtian perspective on citizenship and belonging in France and England

Oakleigh Welply | British Journal of Sociology of Education

This article draws together a comparative sociological analysis and a political theory perspective to interpret children’s views on the role of school and being a pupil, and what these tell us about their conceptual representations of citizenship and belonging in France and England. The article presents research findings from a cross-national ethnographic study with children aged 10 and 11 years in two primary schools, one in France and one in England. This article shows that children’s views generally reflected national value orientations around citizenship and belonging, but that these conceptions of citizenship were not always fully understood by children, and masked, in some cases, deeper mechanisms of exclusion. This raises questions about the place of citizenship in education in France and England, and calls for a deeper understanding of the ways in which conceptions of citizenship are formed through children’s experience of school.

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Between Data Capitalism and Data Citizenship

María Soledad Segura, Silvio Waisbord | Television & New Media

We discuss two points raised by the articles in this special issue, which are related to our previous work on media movements in Latin America. First, we analyze the dimensions of data activism in the region. Recent experiences in Latin America suggest two types of data activism differentiated by goals and spheres of action: social data activism and data rights activism. They also have diverse tactics and achievements. Second, we discuss the Global South as the site of counter-epistemic and alternative practices, and we wonder whether the concept of “data colonialism” adequately captures the dynamics of the digital society in areas of well-entrenched digital divides. We argue that datafication and the opposition to datafication in the South does not develop exactly as in the North given huge political, economic, social, and technological differences in the context of the expansion of digital capitalism.

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Afro-Mexicans and the Making of Modern Mexico: Citizenship, Race, and Capitalism in Jamiltepec, Oaxaca (1821-1910)

John Radley Milstead | Michigan State University

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The Episteme of Meta-Modernity: Order, Value, and Citizenship in the Space of ‘Digital Finitudes’

Prof Milan Jaros | The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention

Fuelled by the neo-liberal division of labour, complexification acquired a life of its own. This gave a novel dimension to the growing gap between emergent knowledge and human systems, knowing and being, between the human content of work and its outcomes, value and citizenship. It is argued that here is one of the key reasons why most decisions are made in the chaotic space of ephemeral price relations manufactured by the data-rich, runaway ‘surveillance commoditism’. However, advances in quantitative, empirical methodologies also open an action space for a fresh research agenda. It is to recast our past and present into transparent, directional genealogical accounts of order generation and actualisation recording the ascent and limits of development as well as its pathways between the ‘lab & cloister’ and the social systems. It grounds a new, ‘meta-modern’ Foucauldian episteme in which the notion of order freed of power-hungry impositions assumes the role of an onto-epistemic variable and offers a rational base for defeating the prospect of ‘digitally enhanced serfdom’. The necessary condition for this agenda to begin to assert itself is a radical methodological transformation of educational and management programmes aimed at bottom up ownership of, and responsibility for the making, choosing, and symbolising, with a view to restoring value as a measure of actualisation of human independence and ability. Only then can knowledge live up to its foundational mission of liberation by reason.

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Doing aesthetics with Arendt: how to see things / Arendt’s judgement. Freedom, responsibility, citizenship

Michael Mack | Journal of Modern Jewish Studies

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Democratic citizenship as problem solving: Aligica’s public entrepreneurship, citizenship and self-governance

Gerald Gaus | The Review of Austrian Economics

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Sacrificing Citizenship: On Muslims and Assimilation in a Neoliberal Frame

Zahid R. Chaudhary | Social Text

This article analyzes the discourse concerning the assimilation of Muslim minorities in the United States and suggests that calls for assimilation are solicitations for a form of self-renunciation and sacrifice. Yet such solicitations occur against the economic and political background of neoliberalism, in which all citizens are asked to make sacrifices for the sake of economic health. How does one read, then, the discourse of Muslim assimilation in light of the psychological, political, and economic realities of neoliberalism? The article explores the transformation of the so-called Jewish question into the contemporary concern with the “Muslim problem.” Drawing on Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer’s reflections on the affinities between capitalism and fascism (especially their reading of Odysseus), as well as Sigmund Freud’s reflections on narcissism and group psychology, the article analyzes the figure of the sacrificial victim in the context of neoliberalism’s authoritarian tendencies and argues that sacrificial figuration allows us to think past the polarizations (West/rest; Trump supporters/Muslims) of our contemporary historical moment.

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Socially Engaged Art and Its Pedagogy of Citizenship

Charles R. Garoian | Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research

The complacent insularity of individualism provides the background against which the convivial performativity of art is conceptualized as acts of citizenship in this article. The alienated sculptural figures and figurations of Alberto Giacometti’s Piazza are considered germane in addressing the self-centered, collective obsession with socially mediated systems and technologies that prompt and perpetuate an ideology of individualism and its indifference toward socially engaged practices of art, pedagogy, and civic responsibility. As counterpoint to Herbert Marcuse’s notion of one-dimensionality and Pierre Bourdieu’s habitus, public artist Lonnie Graham’s community-based, cross-continental subsistent agricultural collaborations in the African/American Garden Project exemplify the convivial generosity of Mikhail Bakhtin’s answerability—a contingent and aleatory process of co-creation that is consistent with the interdependent citizenship of socially engaged art and its education.

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Catalonia rescaling Spain: Is it feasible to accommodate its “stateless citizenship”?

Igor Calzada | Regional Science Policy & Practice

The Spanish nation‐state is gradually being rescaled by Catalonia’s “secession crisis.” Recently and dramatically, in the aftermath of the “illegal” and “constitutive referendum” that took place on 1 October 2017, 2,286,217 Catalan citizens attempted to exercise the “right to decide” to ultimately become “stateless citizens.” This paper examines this rescaling process that has been forming in Barcelona since 10 July 2010 when 1 million Catalan citizens marched to claim their “right to decide” on secession. This paper concludes that, at present, it is not feasible for the Spanish nation‐state to accommodate Catalonia’s “stateless citizenship.”

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Unequal urban rights: Critical reflections on property and urban citizenship

Ditte Brøgger | Urban Studies

In the fast-growing cities of the Global South, urban forms of citizenship and urban rights are unequally defined and locally negotiated. The aim of this paper is to add the themes of property, landownership and housing as perspectives in the understanding of urban citizenship and to demonstrate how the urban is an arena for the negotiation of rights. This is done by examining urban citizenship and the graduated system of locally negotiated rights, including the right to property, the right to belong to an urban community and the right to urban resources. The research is located geographically in Nepal, where a typology of different classes of citizenship is developed in order to explain how classes of urban citizenship have different rights in the urban. Central to this is an analysis of unequal rights and unequal access to essential urban resources and services. The paper finds that the definition of (new) classes of urban citizenship in Nepal is critically embedded in historical practices and social structures. This demonstrates the relevance of further research into exclusionary practices in urban areas in the rapidly urbanising Global South and adds to the discussion of different types of urban citizenship and unequal rights to the urban space.

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Towards a radical digital citizenship in digital education

Akwugo Emejulu, Callum McGregor | Critical Studies in Education

In this article, we attempt to define and explore a concept of ‘radical digital citizenship’ and its implications for digital education. We argue that the ‘digital’ and its attendant technologies are constituted by on-going materialist struggles for equality and justice in the Global South and North which are erased in the dominant literature and debates in digital education. We assert the need for politically informed understandings of the digital, technology and citizenship and for a ‘radical digital citizenship’ in which critical social relations with technology are made visible and emancipatory technological practices for social justice are developed.

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Is unconditional basic income feasible in capitalism?

A Artner | Critique

This paper examines whether the concept of Unconditional Basic Income (UBI) can be realised within the framework of capitalism. After describing the essence of UBI, I present its historical antecedents, rival concepts and the pros and cons. The paper then contrasts the effect of UBI on wage labour with aspects of capital accumulation and makes an assessment of the obstacles to the introduction of UBI. It deduces why and how UBI might become unsustainable in cases where it is implemented within the framework of a profit-oriented and property-based society and concludes that as UBI would put a floor under the working-class income, restrict the possibilities of suppressing the wage share and increase the rate of exploitation, it is unlikely to be introduced and certainly cannot be maintained as long as the socio-economic system is based on the profit motive.

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Not decided in the kitchen! Technocracy and the regulatory-welfare politics of India’s Direct Benefits Transfer reform

S Yerramsetti | International Review of Administrative Sciences

Public policies designed to advance governance reform without the corresponding legal frameworks that secure democratic values can exacerbate the power imbalance between the government and the policies’ targets. This article discusses India’s post-liberalization changes through the governance paradigms of New Public Management and technocracy. Using the case of Direct Benefits Transfer reform, it traces the emergence of technocracy as a governance paradigm. It discusses the implications of technocracy’s complementarity with contemporary populism for the restructuring of social citizenship. It makes a case for a neo-Weberian transformation through a renewed commitment to a legal approach to public administration in order to reinforce the public’s faith in the role of the administrative state as an instrument of emancipation and social progress.Points for practitionersPublic administration, especially in non-Western contexts, is characterized by the prioritization of managerial innovations in government over the establishment of legal frameworks. In that context, this article illustrates two central points for practitioners:• The powers of delegated legislation should be exercised transparently and by establishing a clear relationship to the formally stated policy objectives.• The operations of the administrative state should be structured in order to advance the goals of both distributive and procedural justice.

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Burdens of the Scientific Revolution: Euro/West-Centrism, Black Boxed Machines, and the (Post) Colonial Present

A Prasad | Technology and Culture

How is it possible that past technoscientific research in India does not serve as a sluice for circulations of technoscience even within India? Why do technoscientific artifacts and knowledge continue to flow largely through the West? The answer to these and related questions, I argue, lies in the entanglement of technoscientific practices in India with Orientalist historiography of the origin of modern science. Such an Orientalist construction forms the basis of the diffusion model and constitutes technologies and societies as black boxes, which, as I show in this article, is strikingly on display in the historical accounts of NMR and MRI machines at even the best institutions and laboratories in India. I thus propose a deconstructive-empirical approach to unravel the enduring implications of Orientalist construction of the origin of modern science.

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Enhancing food security through diet quality:The role of non‐farm work in rural India

A D’Souza, AK Mishra, S Hirsch | Agricultural Economics

India has achieved food security at the macro‐level. However, at the micro‐level, the country still struggles with extensive problems of food nutrition insecurity. In this paper, we assess the impact of non‐farm income and non‐farm work status (casual and full‐time non‐farm work) of operator, spouses, and couples on the diet quality of smallholder households in India. We find that non‐farm income decreases the likelihood of farming household being in the poor‐diet quality group by 31% and the medium‐diet quality group by 3%. Full‐time non‐farm work by operators and spouses decreases the likelihood of farming households being in the poor‐diet quality group by 3% and 9%, respectively. Finally, national programs like public food distribution programs increase the probability of rural farming households in the poor‐diet quality group. Findings from this study underscore the importance of non‐farm income and full‐time non‐farm work in improving diet quality of rural Indian households.

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The Jurisprudence of Taxpayer Rights in India: An Evolutionary Tale in Direct Taxation

Kinshuk Jha | Liverpool Law Review

This article traces the evolution of taxpayer rights in direct taxes in India. From the first income tax statute introduced in British India to the most recent one, a broad analysis has been done of the enactments to comprehend the jurisprudence of taxpayer rights in India. The role of different administrative committees and the courts of law in establishing taxpayer rights has also been analysed. The scope of taxpayer rights in post-independence India has been probed, the colonial and post-colonial travails of the taxpayer have been outlined, and the contemporary redressals to taxpayer concerns up to the period of September 2019 have been examined in this article.

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The Global and the Local: Tracing the Trajectory of the Largest Biometric Identity Program

Pragati Rawat, John C. Morris | Politics & Policy

How did the largest national biometric identity program chart a successful trajectory for itself? We employ the actor‐network theory in a novel case of unprecedented scale to trace the trajectory of a complex government program in India. The program created a huge local network of human actors and technical artifacts and their resultant actions shaped the interests of the global network positively, thus managing the political support and flow of funds for the project. Modern strategies of minimalist design, open application program interfaces, and the fast pace of implementation strengthened the position of the program as the obligatory passage point.

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When Illiberals Embrace Human Rights

Alexandra Huneeus | AJIL Unbound

A topic motivating much research since 2016 is the turn away from international law caused by a surge in non-liberal and nationalist governments across the world. In the realm of human rights law, scholars have noted how states are now more apt to repudiate, resist, or simply ignore their human rights obligations. This essay makes a different cut into this topic. It considers not how non-liberal actors reject human rights law, but rather what happens when they embrace it. International human rights law in Latin America—often understood as a means of promoting a cosmopolitan, liberal political order—is also being harnessed toward other types of political projects. This raises the question of how necessary the link is between human rights and political liberalism: is non-liberal engagement an existential threat, or can human rights law have a thinner commitment to liberal principles than does, for example, national constitutional law? As the American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) turns fifty, this essay argues that the human rights law of the Americas is open-ended enough that it can incorporate, and has at times incorporated, non-liberal concerns and norms without losing coherence or legitimacy. Further, this may be an apt survival strategy, albeit not the only one, for the region’s human rights institutions in our time.

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Citizenship: What Everyone Needs to Know

Peter J. Spiro | Oxford University Press

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