Viking tattoos | Pastafarianism | Heavy Metal


Viking Tattoos of Instagram: Runes and Contemporary Identities

Lisa Bennett, Kim Wilkins Convergence

“In this essay, we explore how and why rune tattoos – that is, tattoos created out of single runes or longer runic inscriptions – become implicated in modern reimaginings of Viking identity….We are trying to understand what kind of cultural work the medieval (in the form of Viking runes) performs in shaping 21st-century identities in a cultural moment when self-perception and social relations have become increasingly embedded in social media.”


Exemptions, Sincerity and Pastafarianism

Nick Martin Journal of Applied Philosophy

“Because Pastafarianism – or the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster – is a parodic religion, common sense suggests its ‘adherents’ should not receive exemptions. However, the prima facie case for excluding Pastafarians is complicated by the fact that many assert their religion is as legitimate as any other religion and that their beliefs are genuine… only a sincerity test – based on consistent behaviour and a willingness to bear the costs of one’s beliefs – satisfies both of these conditions, but, on a weak and contingent basis.”


On Heavy Metal: Existential Rage and the Neurotic Artist

Ashley L Whitaker Journal of Humanistic Psychology

“…the heavy metal musical genre…is a dynamic medium that encapsulates and communicates existential rage, a version of existential injury categorized by extreme embitterment toward one’s being in the world….Heavy metal as a sonic medium of expression is intensely engrossed in existential concerns about existence. “

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